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教師資格考試英語語法-定語從句

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定語從句起了形容詞的作用,在句中修飾一個名詞或代詞。被修飾的詞叫作先行詞,引導定語從句的詞叫關系詞,它的作用:一是放在先行詞與定語從句中間起了連接作用;二是在從句中擔當一個成分,并與先行詞保持數的一致。

1.關系代詞的用法

(1)作主語用who,which和that。例:

He is the man who / that lives next door.

The train which / that has just left is for Shenzhen.

(2)作賓語用whom,who,which,that。例:

The man (whom / who / that) we have just seen is a famous writer.

Where is the book (which / that) I bought last week?

(3)作定語用whose。例:

He is the man whose car was stolen last week.

It was a meeting whose importance I did not realize at that time.

(4)作表語只用that,它既可以指人,也可以指物,但時常省略。例:

He is no longer the man that he used to be.

This is no longer the dirty place (that) it used to be.

2.關系副詞

(1)關系副詞的用法

① when 指時間,在從句中作時間狀語,它的先行詞通常有:

time,day,morning,night,week,year

例:I still remember the time when I first became a college student.

Do you know the date when Lincoln was born?

② where指地點,在從句中作地點狀語,它的先行詞通常有:

place,spot,street,house,room,city,town,country等

例:This is the hotel where they are staying.

I forget the house where the Smiths lived.

③ why指原因或理由,它的先行詞只有:

reason

例:That is the reason why he is leaving so soon.

3.連接詞只用that的情況

(1)先行詞為all,everything,anything,nothing,little,much等不定代詞。

(2)先行詞被all,any,every,each,much,little,no,some,few等修飾時。

(3)先行詞有形容詞最高級和序數詞修飾時。

(4)先行詞既指人又指物時。

(5)先行詞被the only,the very修飾時。

(6)句中已經用who或which時,為了避免重復。

4.連接詞只用which/ who/ whom的情況

(1)在非限制性定語從句中,只能用which指代物,用who / whom指人。

(2)在由“介詞+關系代詞”引導的定語從句中,只能用which指物(“介詞+ which”一般在定語從句中分別作時間、地點、原因狀語,于是“介詞+ which”可以分別用when / where / why代替),whom指人。

(3)先行詞本身是that時,關系詞用which,先行詞為those / one / he時多用who。

5.定語從句注意事項

(1)whose的先行詞指物時,可用of which代替,但詞序不同,即whose+名詞=the +n. + of which=of which + the + n.

He lives in the room whose window faces south.

= He lives in the room,the window of which faces south.

=He lives in the room,of which the window faces south.

(2)當point,situation,case,condition,stage (階段)等詞作先行詞表示“情況、境地、場合”等意思時,用where引導定語從句,where在句中作狀語。例:

I’ve come to the point where I can’t stand him.

(3)先行詞是the way,意為“方式,方法”時,引導定語從句的關系詞用that / in which或省略。例:

I didn’t like the way (that / in which) she talked to me.

【典型例題】

--- Where did you see the movie Life of Pi directed by Ang Lee?

---- It was in the cinema _____ I regularly go.

A. which B. that C. where D. what

【答案】C。解析:考查強調句型的省略和定語從句。句意:---你在哪里看的由李安導演的電影“少年派的奇幻漂流記”呢?---是在我經常去的電影院里。此題往往會誤認為是強調句型而選B,但是把句子回答完整的話應該是it was in the cinema ____ I regularly go that I saw the movie Life of Pi directed by Ang Lee,是省略了和前面句子的相同成分,即強調句型的省略,所以從結構上判斷cinema后面是定語從句,句子為主謂結構,缺少狀語,應該選關系副詞,四個選項中只有C選項where為關系副詞,故選C。

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